8 Most Controversial Cases of Euthanasia - Oddee

 

euthanasia case study

Mar 09,  · The board that assesses each case said he had to seek psychological help first, but after he failed to find such treatment, his request was granted. He was due to be euthanized in January , but it was suddenly canceled after doctors pulled out of the euthanasia procedure. Jan 06,  · A retired lecturer who is terminally ill has launched a legal challenge for the right to die, claiming that the Suicide Act condemns him to an undignified and terrifying rothshteins.ga: Owen Bowcott, Harriet Sherwood. Ethics resources for students and teachers OCR A level RS Philosophy and Ethics. Ethical theories include Kant, Natural Law, Situation Ethics, Virtue Ethics and Utilitarianism. Ethical issues include Abortion, Euthanasia, Genetic Engineering, War, Infertility Treatment.


Terminally ill UK man launches legal challenge for right to die | Society | The Guardian


Two decades of research on euthanasia in the Netherlands have resulted into clear insights in the frequency and characteristics of euthanasia and other medical end-of-life decisions in the Netherlands. These empirical studies have contributed to the quality of the public debate, euthanasia case study, and to the regulating and public control of euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide.

No slippery slope seems to have occurred. Physicians seem to adhere to the criteria for due care in the large majority of cases. Further, it has been shown that the majority of physicians think that the euthanasia Act has improved their legal certainty and contributes to the carefulness of life-terminating euthanasia case study. Ineighty percent of the euthanasia cases were reported to the review committees.

Thus, the transparency envisaged by the Act still does not extend to all cases. Unreported cases almost euthanasia case study involve the use of opioids, and are not considered to be euthanasia by physicians. More education and debate is needed to disentangle in these situations which acts should be regarded as euthanasia and which should not.

Medical end-of-life decision-making is a crucial part of end-of-life care. It should therefore be given continuous attention in health care policy and medical training. Systematic periodic research is crucial for enhancing our understanding of end-of-life care in modern medicine, in which the pursuit of a good quality of dying is nowadays widely recognized as an important goal, in addition to the traditional goals such as curing diseases and prolonging life, euthanasia case study.

Many people have pronounced opinions about the acceptability of euthanasia and the circumstances in which it should or should not be allowed. Worldwide, the topic sparks debates. Many of these debates are based on personal and moral views, whereas actual facts rooted in empirical research will contribute to a more enlightened debate. To improve understanding of the Dutch situation regarding euthanasia, this paper provides a concise overview of research euthanasia case study has been performed in this field during the past two decades.

Because the legalization of euthanasia in the Netherlands is the result of decades of debates, an overview is provided of the history of the Dutch debate on euthanasia, including the highlighting of some specific aspects of Dutch culture that contributed to the legalization of euthanasia.

In the Netherlands, euthanasia has been defined since as the administration of drugs with the explicit intention to end life at the explicit request of a patient. Physician-assisted suicide is defined as the administration, supply or prescription of drugs with the explicit intention to enable the patient to end his or her life. Sinceeuthanasia case study, in the Netherlands both euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide have been lawful and they are both subject to the same criteria for due care.

The law restricted medicine to those physicians who had passed a state exam, made it subject to governmental inspection, and introduced organization and standardization into medical practice. Four years later, inthe Burial Act was enacted, regulating the way physicians should deal with deceased patients. It stated that a burial could only take place after written permission of a municipal registrar. This permission was only given when the attending physician stated on the death certificate that the patient died from a natural cause, euthanasia case study.

In case of an unnatural death, the death should be reported to the national authorities, euthanasia case study. A physician helped her dying mother end her own life following repeated and explicit requests for euthanasia. The physician eventually received a short, euthanasia case study sentence, euthanasia case study. While the court upheld that she did commit murder, it offered an opening for regulating euthanasia by acknowledging that a physician does not always have to keep a patient alive against his or her will when faced with pointless suffering.

Euthanasia case study the first euthanasia test case, it broke social taboos in a country with strong Christian traditions. In the s, the debate about euthanasia progressed and formalized. To achieve uniformity in policy, they decided that every case of euthanasia should be scrutinized and that it should be decided whether or not the attending physician should be prosecuted. Inthe Health Council advised that a State Commission should be installed to address the definition of euthanasia as well as the criteria under which it should be allowed.

Inthe Commission produced its report. This definition has been used ever since. The Commission also drew up a series of criteria euthanasia case study due care to be met in every case of euthanasia. We shall return to euthanasia case study criteria later. When the State Commission was working on its report, the Supreme Court ruled on the Schoonheim case, in Griffiths et al.

It was the first euthanasia case that was judged by the Dutch Supreme Court. Euthanasia was performed on the explicit request of a year-old patient who suffered unbearably of a combination of deteriorating eyesight, hearing and speech, as well as being bedridden and experiencing general deterioration and loss of dignity.

The physician was acquitted from prosecution. The Royal Dutch Medical Association also undertook important steps towards euthanasia case study societal control of euthanasia in the Netherlands in the s. It took an official affirmative position regarding the legalization of euthanasia, and called for the elimination of barriers for physicians who intended to report their life-ending acts. It emphasized that only physicians should be allowed to perform euthanasia and that euthanasia can only take place within a physician-patient relationship.

The Royal Dutch Medical Association further tried to improve formal societal control of euthanasia through encouraging physicians to report their cases. In this way the medical professionals, through their professional organization, influenced the development of the due care criteria.

After the start of the debate on euthanasia, some physicians euthanasia case study willing to report euthanasia cases and thus be held accountable. However, until the mids only a very small number of cases were reported. Inthe Ministry of Justice—together with the Royal Dutch Medical Association—agreed to proclaim a euthanasia case study and uniform notification procedure, aiming at transparency, accountability, and harmonizing regional prosecution policies, euthanasia case study.

Physicians who had complied with the criteria for due care for euthanasia would not be prosecuted. Euthanasia case study are physicians treated as a murder-suspect, policemen interrogating relatives shortly after a patient died of euthanasia, or doctors who were euthanasia case study for questioning from their surgeries, in front of patients, euthanasia case study subsequently found to have done nothing wrong.

This notification procedure entailed that the physician performing euthanasia informed the local medical examiner about his or her act through filling in an extensive questionnaire. Subsequently, the medical examiner informed the public prosecutor, who decided whether the physician had adhered to the criteria for due care or should be prosecuted.

As a next step, ina national reporting procedure was developed through establishing multidisciplinary review committees, consisting of a lawyer, a physician, and an ethicist. These committees judged the reported cases and advised the public prosecutor about whether or not the criteria for due care had been fulfilled. The reporting procedure was endorsed by many physicians, and the review committees only rarely found serious violations of the requirements.

On April 1st,the Euthanasia Act came into effect to regulate the ending of life by a physician at the request of a patient who was suffering unbearably without hope of relief, euthanasia case study.

The criteria for due care, euthanasia case study, originally formulated by the State Commission, had been further developed, euthanasia case study, partly through case law de Haan They require a physician to assess that:, euthanasia case study. The Act officially legalized euthanasia, but in effect it mainly legalized an existing practice. The only major change was that, under the Act, the review committees needed to forward to the public prosecutor only those cases in which the criteria for due care criteria were not met.

In the period —, the review committees gave the verdict of non-compliance in 15 cases on a total of 5, reported cases. None of the involved physicians was eventually prosecuted Onwuteaka-Philipsen et al. Most physicians think that the Act has improved their legal certainty and contributes to the care with which euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide are practiced Onwuteaka-Philipsen et al. The legalization of euthanasia is often considered to be the result of three changes in society: individualization, diminished taboos concerning death, and an increased recognition that prolonging life is not necessarily the appropriate focus of medical treatment for all patients Weyers The fact that these changes occurred in many Western countries but led to legislation in only a few makes clear that some other elements of the Dutch culture and healthcare system played a significant role in the process of legalization of euthanasia.

First of all, euthanasia case study, the Dutch health care system has several important attributes that shaped a context of safeguards in which the legalization of euthanasia could take place.

Social policies in the Netherlands have given broad support for equity in sharing financial burdens Griffiths et al. Euthanasia case study a result, virtually everyone is covered by health insurance and healthcare is freely accessible and affordable to all. Also, the general structure of the Dutch health care system is unique.

Almost all inhabitants in the Netherlands have a general practitioner with whom they often euthanasia case study a longstanding and personal relationship Janssens and ten Have This might enable a general practitioner to judge whether a patient euthanasia case study the first three, patient-related criteria of due care for euthanasia.

Second, the Netherlands has a history in which candor is highly euthanasia case study Kennedy and the Netherlands on the whole can be considered a climate in which new views and ideas are generally welcomed and openly discussed, as was the case for euthanasia. Further, in political culture, there is a general conviction that it is better to guide social developments than to try to stop them Griffiths et al.

A unique feature of the process of legalizing euthanasia in the Netherlands was the position of systematic empirical research.

Inalong with the establishment of the notification procedure, euthanasia case study, the government decided that further legislation of euthanasia should await the findings of a commission appointed to conduct research on the frequency and characteristics of euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide and other medical end-of-life decisions in the Netherlands.

This commission, known as the Remmelink Commission, appointed a research-group supervised by Professor Paul van der Maas. To enhance the cooperation of physicians, the information that was collected from physicians could not be claimed from the researchers by the public prosecutor in case of legal prosecution.

Nationwide frequencies and characteristics of end-of-life decisions were studied through death certificates studies in van der Maas et al. Stratified samples of deaths cases were drawn from the central death registry of Statistics Netherlands, where all deaths in the Netherlands are reported. All physicians attending a death case—unless the cause of death precluded an end-of-life decision such as a car accident resulting in instant death —received a written questionnaire, accompanied by a recommendation letter of the Chief Inspector for Health care and the president of the Royal Dutch medical Association, euthanasia case study.

The anonymity of physicians and patients was guaranteed. Such decisions can be characterized by several aspects: the acts of the physician e. When at least one of the questions a were answered with yesthe case was classified as a non-treatment decision.

When at least one of the questions b was answered with yesthe case was classified as the alleviation of symptoms with a possible life-shortening effect. When question c was answered with yesthe case was classified as euthanasia when the drug was administered euthanasia case study the physician at the explicit request of the patient, and as physician-assisted suicide when the patient had taken the drug him- or herself. In the remaining cases where question c was answered with yeseuthanasia case study, but without explicit patient request, the case was classified as ending of life without an explicit request.

For cases in which more than one question had been answered affirmatively, the decision with the most explicit intention prevailed over other decisions, whereas in cases of similar intentions question c prevailed over b and b over a, euthanasia case study. In each study, the key questions were followed by questions about the decision-making process, the type of drugs that had been used, and the degree to which death had been hastened, according to the physician. Numbers of reported cases of euthanasia of physician-assisted suicide were obtained from the Public Prosecutorsor the regional review committeeseuthanasia case study, In1.

This trend reversed inwhen 1. The number of euthanasia requests also decreased in this period: from in to in Despite recommendations from the Royal Dutch Medical Association that physician-assisted suicide should be preferred over euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide had a much lower frequency than euthanasia in each study; in this occurred in 0.

Possible explanations for the frequent choice of euthanasia over physician-assisted suicide are that physicians want to control the act of ending life and to have medical assistance available in case of unforeseen difficulties, which are more likely to occur when patients take the drugs orally themselves Groenewoud et al.

Euthanasia is also often preferred when patients are physically too weak to take the drugs themselves. Frequency of euthanasia and other end-of-life practices in the Netherlands, in, and Forgoing of potentially life prolonging treatments either withholding or withdrawing and intensified alleviation of symptoms occurred much more often than active ending of life.

In the study, it could be established that the major reason for not reporting was that the physician did not regard the course of action as euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide and therefore did not see euthanasia case study necessity to legally report the case Onwuteaka-Philipsen et al. This was strongly related to the kind of drugs used.

 

Case studies of euthanasia

 

euthanasia case study

 

Jul 28,  · It was the first euthanasia case that was judged by the Dutch Supreme Court. Euthanasia was performed on the explicit request of a year-old patient who suffered unbearably of a combination of deteriorating eyesight, hearing and speech, as well as being bedridden and experiencing general deterioration and loss of rothshteins.ga by: Cases in history. Profiles: In Dr Cox openly defied the law and assented to 70 year old Mrs Boyes' persistent request for voluntary active euthanasia. Mrs Boyes' was so ill that she "screamed like a dog" if anyone touched her. The case paved the way for acceptance of advance refusals of medical treatments and so for living wills. Ethics resources for students and teachers OCR A level RS Philosophy and Ethics. Ethical theories include Kant, Natural Law, Situation Ethics, Virtue Ethics and Utilitarianism. Ethical issues include Abortion, Euthanasia, Genetic Engineering, War, Infertility Treatment.